Rule of Thirds:
The Rule of Thirds is present in a photo when an object or a person are in line with the 9 square grid the effect works especially well when more than one features of the photo are lined up on the grid for example in this picture both the lighthouse and the horizon are almost perfectly in line creating a satisfying 90 degree angle.
Image by Trey Ratcliff.
Golden Ratio Rule
The Golden R§atio
Leading lines is when a painting or photograph will present you with a clear line/s that lead your eye to the centre point or focus point of an image, The lines lead your focus away from the background and is a good technique for making a dull backdrop look interesting.